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Karachaliou, M., Georgiou, V., Roumeliotaki, T., Chalkiadaki, G., Daraki, V., Koinaki, S., Dermitzaki, E., Sarri, K., Vassilaki, M., Kogevinas, M., Oken, E., Chatzi, L

Association of Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain With Fetal Growth, Offspring Obesity And Cardio-Metabolic Traits in Early Childhood

Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol., 2015, 212, 4, e1, 14, IF: 3.973, PMID: 25557209

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of trimester-specific gestational weight gain with offspring fetal growth, obesity risk, and cardio-metabolic health outcomes from birth up to 4 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted the present study in 977 mother-child pairs of the pregnancy cohort "Rhea" study in Crete, Greece. We measured birth weight, body mass index from 6 months to 4 years of age, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, blood pressure, and blood levels of lipids, C-reactive protein, and adipose tissue hormones at 4 years of age. We used multiple linear and log Poisson regression models to examine the association of exposure with continuous or binary outcomes respectively. RESULTS: Greater rate of gestational weight gain in the first trimester of pregnancy (per 200 g/week) was associated with increased risk of overweight/obesity from 2 years [RR: 1.25, (95% CI: 1.09, 1.42)] to 4 years of age [RR: 1.15, (95% CI: 1.05, 1.25)], but not with birth size. Each 200 gr/week of weight gain in the first trimester of pregnancy was also associated with greater risk of high waist circumference [RR: 1.13, (95% CI: 1.04, 1.23)], high sum of skinfold thickness [RR: 1.15 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.29)] and higher diastolic blood pressure at 4 years of age [beta: 0.43 mmHg (95% CI: 0.00, 0.86)]. Greater rate of gestational weight gain during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy (per 200 gr/week) was associated with greater risk of large for gestational age neonates [RR: 1.22, (95% CI: 1.02, 1.45)] and higher levels of cord blood leptin [ratio of geometric means: 1.08 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.17)], but not with child anthropometry at later ages. CONCLUSION: Timing of gestational weight gain may differentially influence childhood cardio-metabolic outcomes


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