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Puente, D., Hartge, P., Greiser, E., Cantor, K. P., King, W. D., Gonzalez, C. A., Cordier, S., Vineis, P., Lynge, E., Chang-Claude, J., Porru, S., Tzonou, A., Jockel, K. H., Serra, C., Hours, M., Lynch, C. F., Ranft, U., Wahrendorf, J., Silverman, D., Fernandez, F., Boffetta, P., Kogevinas, M

A pooled analysis of bladder cancer case-control studies evaluating smoking in men and women

Cancer Causes Control, 2006, 17, 1, 71, 79, IF: 2.920, PMID: 16411055

Objective A recent study suggested that risk of bladder cancer may be higher in women than in men who smoked comparable amounts of cigarettes. We pooled primary data from 14 case-control studies of bladder cancer from Europe and North America and evaluated differences in risk of smoking by gender.Methods The pooled analysis included 8316 cases (21% women) and 17,406 controls (28% women) aged 30-79 years. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for smoking were adjusted for age and study. Exposure-response was evaluated in a stratified analysis by gender and by generalized additive models.Results The odds ratios for current smokers compared to nonsmokers were 3.9 (95% CI 3.5-4.3) for males and 3.6 (3.1-4.1) for females. In 11 out of 14 studies, ORs were slightly higher in men. ORs for current smoking were similar for men (OR = 3.4) and women (OR = 3.7) in North America, while in Europe men (OR = 5.3) had higher ORs than women (OR = 3.9). ORs increased with duration and intensity in both genders and the exposure-response patterns were remarkably similar between genders.Conclusion These results do not support the hypothesis that women have a higher relative risk of smoking-related bladder cancer than men


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